In that regard, the stability of the cartel depends on the losses and profits received as a result of the fraud, in relation to the likelihood of a possible sanction by other members of the cartel. Therefore, cartels can only create stability through a system that, as an internal punishment, increases the cost of fraud (Spagnolo 2000; Spar, 1994). Cartels must monitor their agreement to detect fraud and punish the companies that carry it out (Levenstein and Suslow, 2006; Connor, 2001; Ayres, 1987). Therefore, for a cartel to survive, this model assumes that there should be a credible punishment in place to punish members who cheat and thus enforce the cartel agreement (Ayres 1987; Green and Porter, 1984; Stigler, 1968). The credible forms of penalties described are price reductions and the threat of price wars (Harrington, 2006; Grossman, 1996). For example, when firms observe fraud from other firms, they temporarily lower their cartel prices to punish potential fraudsters and stabilize the cartel (Ashenfelter and Graddy, 2005). Other cases include market sharing agreements, market share sharing and geographic allocation. These cartels use customer lists, sales lists, market sharing lists, and geographic distributions. The customer division, often referred to by companies as „respectful customers,“ is most common in selected cases. One of the cartellists explains the use of customer lists as follows: In addition to third-party fixers, other cartel participants can play a conciliatory role in the event of an internal disagreement.
A Director General shall explain: one or more members of the cartel may have placed on the market more than what was allocated to them, so that the actual tender is equal to q∗ and the price resulting from the intersection of the D curve and the inflated supply curve S is equal to p∗; The fundamental tension in cartel agreements is that there are incentives for companies to create and undermine cooperative institutions. In recent years, much attention has been paid to models that use these incentives to predict when cartels are most likely to occur in the business cycle. Stigler (1964) and Green and Porter (1984) note that if prices are not directly observable and demand is subject to random fluctuations, there is an undercutting of a price agreement and an inward shift in the demand curve. When the cartel members find that the market price falls below a certain level (the trigger price), they react rationally by increasing their own production for a limited period of time, even if there has been no fraud and the members know that there has been no fraud! Despite the possible appearance of this unjustified penalty, a trigger pricing system is attractive for the cartel, since a sufficiently long reversal phase will deter fraud. The empirical implication of the price triggering mechanism is that cartel agreements are more likely to collapse when demand declines, such as during the economic downturn. Of course, these cases involve remittances and international forex transactions, but with the pressure of controls of this type of operations, cartels could in the future try to launder more complex methods related to securities or financial markets. Unlike other cartels, export cartels are legal in virtually all jurisdictions, despite their adverse effects on affected markets.  Levenstein, M.C., & Suslow, V. Y.
(2011). The break is difficult: determining the duration of the agreement. Zeitschrift für Recht und Wirtschaft, 54 (2), 455-492. Shaffer, G. & Nesbitt, N. H. (2011). Criminalizing cartels: a global trend? Sedona Conference Journal, page 12, pages 11-26 This research project was conducted at Melbourne Law School by researchers Caron Beaton-Wells, Fiona Haines, Christine Parker, David Round and Janette Nankivell. The project examined the process of criminalizing cartels and the perception of the public and businessmen of cartel behaviour. The researchers used a multidisciplinary approach, including legal and social research methods. For more information, see www.law.unimelb.edu.au/cartel. The use of secondary sources leads to several limitations of this study.
Due to distortions in detection and enforcement, the cases do not necessarily provide a representative picture of the overall conduct of the cartel in the Netherlands. Some cartels are more likely to be discovered, and cases that require significant evidence are more likely to result in a fine. The statements of the representatives of the companies mentioned in this article come from secondary sources and could therefore express the companies` perspectives, but were originally made in the context of an administrative procedure. Note that one of the formal legal requirements for identifying a person or company guilty of an offence is that the effects of the breach must be „noticeable“; have a significant impact on the market. This could lead some company representatives to deny the „real“ impact of agreements entered into as a legal defense strategy or to generally under-report their behavior. Table 2 provides descriptive information on the cases selected, including the duration of the agreement, footnote 10 Number of companies and the type of behaviour. Footnote 11 The relatively high number of companies in these cases can be distorted for three main reasons. First, cartels with an active industry association are more likely to recognize this. Second, cartels with a smaller number of companies can conspire more effectively, with little chance of detection. Third, an effective agreement can have a self-reinforcing effect; Agreements can offer more companies the opportunity to survive.
The first is the behaviour of short-term marginal costs in the vicinity of sole proprietorships as a function of the level of cartel. If the gap between marginal costs and price is large, and if marginal costs for the individual producer continue to fall, the profit per unit is likely to be considerable and the incentive to cheat is likely to be enormous. It is difficult to determine the Point of View of the Carlists when their testimony and testimony must come from secondary sources collected in the course of administrative proceedings. .