There is also evidence of different types of long-term memory from brain scans. For example, Tulving (1989) showed that when episodic memory is used, the frontal lobes are activated, but when semantic memory is used, the back of the cerebral cortex is active. Closely related to this is what researchers call autobiographical memory or your memories of your own personal life history. As you can imagine, episodic and autobiographical memories play an important role in your personal identity. In the episodic memory system, information about certain events is related to the situational context in which they occurred. The person remembers the information about the event („what“) and its context of occurrence (p.B. „where“ or „when“ it occurred). There are a number of different types of episodic memories that people may have. In addition, episodic memory seems to emerge when a child is 3 or 4 years old (Scarf, Gross, Colombo & Hayne, 2013). Nevertheless, the activation of certain regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus, seems to differ in adults. While older people (aged 67 to 80 years) appear to activate both the right and left hippocampus, younger people (aged 23 to 39) do not activate the right hippocampus (Maguire and Frith, 2003). Individuals may have different types of episodic memories as follows: Phelps, E. A., Labar, K.
S., Anderson, A.K., O`Connor, K. J., Fulbright, R. K., and Spencer, D.D. (1998). Clarifying the contributions of the human amygdala to emotional memory: a case study. Neurocasis 6, 527-540. However, others claim that episodic memories are only stored in the hippocampus for a short time. The latter group believes that these memories are consolidated in the neocortex after a short period of time in the hippocampus. This view is supported by recent findings on neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which shed light on the elimination and formation of memories. Li, J.
S., Hsiao, K. Y., and Chen, W.M. (2011). Effects of medial prefrontal cortex damage in rats on the memory of an anxious conditioning event. Behave. Brain Res. 218, 94–98. Dere, E., De Souza Silva, M.A., and Huston, J.P. (2004). Higher-order memories for objects occurring in mice in different spatio-temporal contexts: evidence of episodic memory.
Pastor Neurosci. 15, 231–240. Plancher, G., Barra, J., Orriols, E., and Piolino, P. (2012b). The influence of action on episodic memory: a study of virtual reality. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. (Hove). (in press). Markowitsch, H.
J., Calabrese, P., Fink, G. R., Durwen, H. F., Kessler, J., Härting, C., et al. (1997). Impaired recovery of episodic memory with probable psychogenic amnesia. Psychiatry Res. 74, 119-126. The last process involves memory. Recall is a process that evokes the retrieval of contextual information about a particular incident. Sometimes a memory is recovered from long-term memory almost effortlessly, and sometimes it takes something to trigger it, such as a word, an image, or even a smell.
In this article, the term „episodic memory“ refers to a unique memory system (or ability) of the brain. However, this is not the only meaning of episodic memory that will be found in the literature. For example, the term is often used to describe the specific experience (content) that comes to mind when exercising episodic memory capacity and the associated feeling (phenomenology) that one is reliving that previous experience. For the sake of clarity, this article will refer to the content of episodic memory as „memorized experiences“ and phenomenological experience as „remembering“. A similar problem exists with the concept of semantic memory. Currently, the term „semantic memory“ also represents a capacity of the brain. The structured contents of the semantic memory system are called „knowledge“ and phenomenological experience „knowledge“ (Gardiner & Richardson-Klavehn, 2000). Light, L. L., and Albertson, S.A. (1989).
Direct and indirect memory tests for category examples in young and old people. Psychol. Aging 4, 487–492. Díaz-Trujillo, A., Contreras, J., Medina, A.C., Silveyra-Leon, G. A., Antaramian, A., Quirarte, G. L., et al. (2009). Improved inhibitor avoidance learning prevents the long-term effect of memory impairment of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Neurobiol. To learn. Mem.
91, 310–314. Greenberg DL, Keane MM, Verfaellie M. Troubled category fluid in medial temporal lobe amnesia: The role of episodic memory. Journal of Neuroscience. 2009;29(35):10900-10908. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1202-09.2009 Mitchell, J.B., and Laiacona, J. (1998). The medial frontal cortex and temporal memory: tests with spontaneous exploratory behavior in rats. Behave. Brain Res. 97, 107-113. The medial temporal lobe, to which the hippocampus belongs, and the right hemisphere of the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the formation of new episodic memories (Janowsky, Shimamura & Squire, 1989).
The researchers found that episodic memory can also depend on semantic memory. During learning assignments, participants scored better when new information was reconciled with previous knowledge, suggesting that semantic knowledge of a task provides a kind of framework for new episodic learning. Friedman, W. J. (1996). „Distance and location processes in the memory for the times of past events,“ in The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, vol. 35, ed. D.
L. Medin (San Diego: Academic Press), pp. 1-41. An example of an episodic memory is the memory of your first kiss. Ehrlichman, H., and Halpern, J. N. (1988). Affect and memory: Effects of pleasant and unpleasant smells on the recovery of happy and unhappy memories.
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